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  • 实验室设计需要注意些什么?
    来源:http://www.jnyhrs.com 浏览: 发布日期:2019-11-25
      关于实验室uwin电竞app下载设计,无论是新建、扩建或是改建项目,都需要极大的工程量。它不单纯是选购合理的仪器设备,还要综合考虑实验室的总体规划、合理布局和平面设计,以及供电、供水、供气、通风、空气净化、安全措施、环境保护等基础设施和基本条件。因此实验室的建设是一项复杂的系统工程,森拉普尔凭借多年的实验室建设经验,给大家总结出了一个好的实验室设计方案的8个关键点,快点学起来吧!
      As for the decoration design of the laboratory, whether it is a new project, an extension project or a reconstruction project, a great amount of work is required. It is not only to choose reasonable instruments and equipment, but also to consider the overall planning, reasonable layout and plane design of the laboratory, as well as the infrastructure and basic conditions of power supply, water supply, gas supply, ventilation, air purification, safety measures, environmental protection, etc. Therefore, the construction of the laboratory is a complex system engineering. With years of laboratory construction experience, senlapur has summed up 8 key points of a good laboratory design scheme. Learn it quickly!
      01、实验室平面布局设计
      01. Laboratory layout design
      实验室平面布局设计是根据实验室性质、实验室的目标定位、实验室的功能要求、实验类型以及实验工艺流程等因素,按照国家相关标准针对实验室既有场地进行科学、合理的功能间区分和布局的工作。
      The layout design of the laboratory is based on the nature of the laboratory, the target orientation of the laboratory, the functional requirements of the laboratory, the type of experiment and the technological process of the experiment, and in accordance with the relevant national standards, to carry out scientific and reasonable work of functional distinction and layout for the existing site of the laboratory.
      实验室平面布局设计非常重要,是建造实验室的基础。所以森拉普尔SLP严格要求实验室设计师必须熟悉我国建筑装饰知识、我国实验室相关标准和规范、熟悉所设计的实验室实验工艺流程等。
      The layout design of the laboratory is very important, which is the basis of the construction of the laboratory. Therefore, SLP strictly requires laboratory designers to be familiar with the architectural decoration knowledge, relevant laboratory standards and specifications in China, and the designed laboratory experiment process.
      02、实验室面积及仪器摆放
      02. Laboratory area and instrument placement
      实验室设计前应根据该实验流程来确定仪器的种类、数量、规格型号、外形尺寸、电压功率等参数以及摆放位置,设计师针对性的做出仪器电源、给排水、供气、纯净水以及排风管道接口的设计。根据仪器数量及放置位置确定各区域所需面积,分割有效利用空间。仪器摆放不仅要方便工作,还要考虑地面承重问题及磨损问题。
      Before the design of the laboratory, the type, quantity, specification and model, boundary dimension, voltage power and other parameters of the instrument as well as the placement position shall be determined according to the experimental process. The designer shall make the design of the instrument power supply, water supply and drainage, gas supply, purified water and exhaust pipe interface. Determine the required area of each area according to the number and placement position of the instrument, and divide the effective space. The arrangement of instruments should not only be convenient for work, but also consider the ground bearing and wear problems.
      03、实验室通风系统设计
      03. Design of laboratory ventilation system
      实验室通风系统设计是实验室设计中的重中之重,也是实验室建设成败的关键因素。实验室通风系统设计包含排风系统和补风系统两方面。
      The design of ventilation system is the most important part in the design of laboratory, and it is also the key factor for the success or failure of laboratory construction. The design of ventilation system in laboratory includes exhaust system and air supplement system.
      实验室通风系统的设计应根据《采暖通风与空气调 节设计规范》GB50019-2003,《民用建筑供暖通风空气调节设计规范》GB50736-2012等规范,排风系统则需要通过实际实验室所需排风风量、管道长度、管道走向以及现场实际情况,依据流体力学进行综合的分析计算,科学合理的设计排风系统,进而达到设计上实验室的安全、舒适、节能等目的。
      The design of laboratory ventilation system shall be in accordance with the code for design of heating ventilation and air conditioning (GB50019-2003) and the code for design of heating ventilation and air conditioning of civil buildings (gb50736-2012). The exhaust system shall be scientifically analyzed and calculated according to the fluid mechanics through the exhaust air volume, pipe length, pipe direction and actual situation in the actual laboratory Reasonable design of exhaust system, and then achieve the design of laboratory safety, comfort, energy saving and other purposes.
      补风系统则应根据实验室类型的要求进行设计,以实现特定的实验室对房间压差的特定要求。森拉普尔SLP的理化实验室要求保持微负压(-5Pa—-10Pa)状态;个别特殊的生物安全实验室则有压力梯度的要求,如标准的PCR实验室四个功能区压力就是要求递减,试剂准备区(+5Pa)→样品制备区(+0Pa)→基因扩增区(-5Pa)→产物分析区(-10Pa)。这样的实验室在设需要通过送排风的控制来实现。
      The make-up air system shall be designed according to the requirements of the laboratory type to achieve the specific requirements of the specific laboratory for the room pressure difference. The physical and chemical laboratory of SLP in senlapur requires to maintain the state of micro negative pressure (- 5pa-10pa); some special biosafety laboratories have the requirements of pressure gradient, for example, the pressure of four functional areas of the standard PCR laboratory is required to decrease, the reagent preparation area (+ 5pa) → sample preparation area (+ 0Pa) → gene amplification area (- 5pa) → product analysis area (- 10Pa). This kind of laboratory needs to be realized through the control of air supply and exhaust during the design.
      04、实验室电气工程设计
      04. Electrical engineering design of laboratory
      实验室电气工程设计包含强弱电两方面。强电方面主要包含仪器用电、照明插座等,弱电包含:网络、数据通信、广播、视频监控等等。
      The electrical engineering design of the laboratory includes strong and weak electricity. In terms of strong current, it mainly includes instrument power, lighting socket, etc., while weak current includes: network, data communication, broadcasting, video monitoring, etc.
      强电设计应根据各仪器设备功率汇总,按功能间、楼层、整栋大楼一级一级的进行统计,依据电气工程学相关知识进行配电系统的设计。每个仪器间单独设置房间终端配电箱,且主要仪器需要单独留出一个回路,不能与房间照明或其他插座串联,这样主要是满足仪器设备的使用和维护要求。楼层配电箱应安置在专用的配电房,设置门锁,需专人管理。
      The design of strong current shall be based on the power summary of each instrument and equipment, the statistics of function room, floor and the first level of the whole building, and the design of power distribution system based on the relevant knowledge of electrical engineering. Each instrument room is equipped with a separate room terminal distribution box, and the main instrument needs to leave a separate circuit, which cannot be connected in series with the room lighting or other sockets, so as to meet the use and maintenance requirements of the instrument and equipment. The floor distribution box shall be placed in a special distribution room with a door lock, which shall be managed by a specially assigned person.
      实验室应配备UPS(不间断电源)为实验室主要设备提供保护。根据实验室设备用电参数,确定不间断电源功率及电流参数,应注意不间断电源的选择应为实验室发展预留足够空间,考虑未来一段时间实验室添置仪器设备的可能性及计划购置仪器的参数,然后充分预留配电负荷。电插根据需要可设计在墙面或地面,地面电插应有一定程度的防水,电插位置应靠近所供电仪器,减少地面走线使实验室更加整洁。由于不间断电源散热、噪音较大,实验室规划时在后部设置了独立供电房并在房间中安装专用空调。
      The laboratory shall be equipped with UPS (uninterruptible power supply) to protect the main equipment of the laboratory. According to the power consumption parameters of the laboratory equipment, the power and current parameters of the ups should be determined. It should be noted that the selection of the ups should reserve enough space for the development of the laboratory. The possibility of adding instruments and equipment in the laboratory in the future and the parameters of purchasing instruments should be considered, and then the distribution load should be fully reserved. The plug-in can be designed on the wall or on the ground according to the needs. The ground plug-in should be waterproof to a certain extent. The plug-in location should be close to the power supply instrument, reducing the ground wiring to make the laboratory cleaner. Due to the heat dissipation and noise of UPS, independent power supply room and special air conditioner are set in the back of the laboratory.
      弱电方面:针对现代实验室发展要求和科技发展趋势,建议主要房间都要设计多个网络通讯端口和至少一个电话接口;实验室规划设计阶段需要在主要通道设计摄像头进行实验室管理监控,有条件的可以每个房间设计,甚至重要精密仪器室加强摄像监控。
      Weak current aspect: according to the development requirements of modern laboratory and the development trend of science and technology, it is suggested that multiple network communication ports and at least one telephone interface should be designed in the main rooms; in the stage of laboratory planning and design, cameras should be designed in the main channel for laboratory management and monitoring, and if there is a piece of equipment, each room can be designed, or even the important precision instrument room should be strengthened with camera monitoring.
      05、实验室给排水设计
      05. Laboratory water supply and drainage design
      实验室给排水包含自来水和纯水。因为实验室的给排水更好的方式都是采用暗装,所以设计如果有遗漏的话将会给后期的实验室管理带来很大的不便和烦恼。
      The laboratory water supply and drainage includes tap water and pure water. Because the best way of water supply and drainage in the laboratory is to use concealed installation, if the design is omitted, it will bring great inconvenience and trouble to the later laboratory management.
      普通自来水一般而言,实验室给水管道选用优质的U-PVC管道,主管可以选用6′,支管可以选用4′;排水管选用优质的PPR管道,一般选择φ50或φ75,特殊情况可以选用φ110的。
      Generally speaking, high-quality U-PVC pipes can be used as the laboratory water supply pipes, 6 'for the main pipes and 4' for the branch pipes; high-quality PPR pipes can be used as the drainage pipes, generally φ 50 or φ 75, and φ 110 pipes can be used in special cases.
      纯净水,根据所有设备满负荷运行所需纯水水量及等级确定合适制水设备,所选设备水处理能力也应预留足够空间。森拉普尔SLP设计中将噪音的气泵(为自动化流水线提供气体压力)和纯水处理仪放置在实验室后部独立的水机房,纯水仪防漏管道直接联通实验室排水系统,并在机房内设置了吸水泵,方便处理一定程度的泄露。此外,还在实验室仪器轴线上设置了两个地底凹槽,给排水管路全部铺设在地下。
      Pure water: determine the appropriate water making equipment according to the pure water quantity and grade required for full load operation of all equipment, and reserve enough space for the water treatment capacity of the selected equipment. In the SLP design, the most noisy air pump (providing gas pressure for the automatic assembly line) and the pure water treatment instrument are placed in the independent water machine room at the back of the central laboratory. The leak proof pipeline of the pure water instrument is directly connected with the drainage system of the laboratory, and the water absorption pump is set in the machine room to facilitate the treatment of a certain degree of leakage. In addition, two subsoil grooves are arranged on the axis of the laboratory instrument, and all the water supply and drainage pipes are laid underground.
      06、实验室空调系统
      06. Laboratory air conditioning system
      实验室的温湿度应根据实验要求设计,普通的理化室采用普通的分体空调或多联机即可。对于精密仪器室对温湿度有一定的要求,比如ICP、ICP-MS等。另有一些特殊的如纤维检验、纸品检测、纺织面料等对温湿度都有更高的要求。设计师在设计这样的实验室是需要依据标准针对性的选材。
      The temperature and humidity of the laboratory should be designed according to the requirements of the experiment. The ordinary physical and chemical room can be designed by using ordinary split air conditioning or multi connected. For precision instrument room, there are certain requirements for temperature and humidity, such as ICP, ICP-MS, etc. There are also some special requirements for temperature and humidity, such as fiber inspection, paper inspection, textile fabrics, etc. In designing such a laboratory, designers need to select materials according to the standards.
      纺织品和纺织原料检验的标准大气按ISO139和GB6529标准规定,温度20±1 ℃,相对湿度65%±2%;纸张、纸品和纸箱类商品检验的标准大气按照ISO187和GB10739标准规定,温度23±1℃,相对湿度50%±2%。除了常规温湿度的恒温恒湿实验室,还有其它特殊的5-18℃低温、30-80℃高温、相对湿度要求小于40%RH低湿、相对湿度高于80%RH的高湿等特殊要求的恒温恒湿实验室。
      The standard atmosphere for the inspection of textiles and textile raw materials shall be in accordance with iso139 and gb6529 standards, with a temperature of 20 ± 1 ℃ and a relative humidity of 65% ± 2%; the standard atmosphere for the inspection of paper, paper products and cartons shall be in accordance with iso187 and gb10739 standards, with a temperature of 23 ± 1 ℃ and a relative humidity of 50% ± 2%. In addition to the conventional constant temperature and humidity laboratory, there are other special constant temperature and humidity laboratories with special requirements, such as 5-18 ℃ low temperature, 30-80 ℃ high temperature, relative humidity less than 40% RH low humidity, relative humidity higher than 80% RH high humidity.
      07、实验室照度及噪音控制设计
      07. Laboratory illumination and noise control design
      根据生物安全实验室建筑技术规范要求BSL-2实验室照度不低于300Lux,噪声不超过68dB6。实验室内uwin电竞app下载前,向施工方提出了实验室的照度要求,建成后又进行了照度检测,机房照度约为285-319lux,核心工作区照度约为375-384lux,基本符合BSL-2实验室建设标准。采取水电独立等措施后实验室环境噪音明显减小,尤其是在相对独立的核心工作区测定分贝数与普通诊室基本相同。
      According to the building technical specifications of biosafety laboratory, the illumination of BSL-2 laboratory shall not be less than 300lux, and the noise shall not be more than 68db6. Before the interior decoration of the laboratory, the illuminance requirements of the laboratory were put forward to the construction party, and after the completion, the illuminance test was carried out. The illuminance of the machine room is about 285-319lux, and the illuminance of the core working area is about 375-384lux, basically in line with the BSL-2 laboratory construction standard. After taking the measures of water and electricity independence, the environmental noise in the laboratory is obviously reduced, especially in the relatively independent core working area, the decibel number is basically the same as that in the ordinary consulting room.
      08、实验室净化及净化等级
      08. Laboratory purification and purification level
      实验室建设前应根据微生物和生物医学实验室生物安全通用准则、GB19489-2008实验室生物安全通用要求、病原微生物实验室生物安全管理条例(国务院424号令)进行生物安全评估,确定实验室是否需要净化以及净化等级。
      Before the construction of the laboratory, the biosafety assessment shall be carried out according to the general biosafety guidelines for microbiological and biomedical laboratories, the general biosafety requirements for laboratories (gb19489-2008) and the biosafety management regulations for pathogenic microbiological laboratories (Order No. 424 of the State Council), to determine whether the laboratory needs to be purified and the purification level.
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