As for the decoration design of the laboratory, whether it is a new project, an extension project or a reconstruction project, a great amount of work is required. It is not only to choose reasonable instruments and equipment, but also to consider the overall planning, reasonable layout and plane design of the laboratory, as well as the infrastructure and basic conditions of power supply, water supply, gas supply, ventilation, air purification, safety measures, environmental protection, etc. Therefore, the construction of the laboratory is a complex system engineering. With years of laboratory construction experience, senlapur has summed up 8 key points of a good laboratory design scheme. Learn it quickly!
01. Laboratory layout design
The layout design of the laboratory is based on the nature of the laboratory, the target orientation of the laboratory, the functional requirements of the laboratory, the type of experiment and the technological process of the experiment, and in accordance with the relevant national standards, to carry out scientific and reasonable work of functional distinction and layout for the existing site of the laboratory.
The layout design of the laboratory is very important, which is the basis of the construction of the laboratory. Therefore, SLP strictly requires laboratory designers to be familiar with the architectural decoration knowledge, relevant laboratory standards and specifications in China, and the designed laboratory experiment process.
02. Laboratory area and instrument placement
Before the design of the laboratory, the type, quantity, specification and model, boundary dimension, voltage power and other parameters of the instrument as well as the placement position shall be determined according to the experimental process. The designer shall make the design of the instrument power supply, water supply and drainage, gas supply, purified water and exhaust pipe interface. Determine the required area of each area according to the number and placement position of the instrument, and divide the effective space. The arrangement of instruments should not only be convenient for work, but also consider the ground bearing and wear problems.
03. Design of laboratory ventilation system
The design of ventilation system is the most important part in the design of laboratory, and it is also the key factor for the success or failure of laboratory construction. The design of ventilation system in laboratory includes exhaust system and air supplement system.
The design of laboratory ventilation system shall be in accordance with the code for design of heating ventilation and air conditioning (GB50019-2003) and the code for design of heating ventilation and air conditioning of civil buildings (gb50736-2012). The exhaust system shall be scientifically analyzed and calculated according to the fluid mechanics through the exhaust air volume, pipe length, pipe direction and actual situation in the actual laboratory Reasonable design of exhaust system, and then achieve the design of laboratory safety, comfort, energy saving and other purposes.
The make-up air system shall be designed according to the requirements of the laboratory type to achieve the specific requirements of the specific laboratory for the room pressure difference. The physical and chemical laboratory of SLP in senlapur requires to maintain the state of micro negative pressure (- 5pa-10pa); some special biosafety laboratories have the requirements of pressure gradient, for example, the pressure of four functional areas of the standard PCR laboratory is required to decrease, the reagent preparation area (+ 5pa) → sample preparation area (+ 0Pa) → gene amplification area (- 5pa) → product analysis area (- 10Pa). This kind of laboratory needs to be realized through the control of air supply and exhaust during the design.
04. Electrical engineering design of laboratory
The electrical engineering design of the laboratory includes strong and weak electricity. In terms of strong current, it mainly includes instrument power, lighting socket, etc., while weak current includes: network, data communication, broadcasting, video monitoring, etc.
The design of strong current shall be based on the power summary of each instrument and equipment, the statistics of function room, floor and the first level of the whole building, and the design of power distribution system based on the relevant knowledge of electrical engineering. Each instrument room is equipped with a separate room terminal distribution box, and the main instrument needs to leave a separate circuit, which cannot be connected in series with the room lighting or other sockets, so as to meet the use and maintenance requirements of the instrument and equipment. The floor distribution box shall be placed in a special distribution room with a door lock, which shall be managed by a specially assigned person.
The laboratory shall be equipped with UPS (uninterruptible power supply) to protect the main equipment of the laboratory. According to the power consumption parameters of the laboratory equipment, the power and current parameters of the ups should be determined. It should be noted that the selection of the ups should reserve enough space for the development of the laboratory. The possibility of adding instruments and equipment in the laboratory in the future and the parameters of purchasing instruments should be considered, and then the distribution load should be fully reserved. The plug-in can be designed on the wall or on the ground according to the needs. The ground plug-in should be waterproof to a certain extent. The plug-in location should be close to the power supply instrument, reducing the ground wiring to make the laboratory cleaner. Due to the heat dissipation and noise of UPS, independent power supply room and special air conditioner are set in the back of the laboratory.
Weak current aspect: according to the development requirements of modern laboratory and the development trend of science and technology, it is suggested that multiple network communication ports and at least one telephone interface should be designed in the main rooms; in the stage of laboratory planning and design, cameras should be designed in the main channel for laboratory management and monitoring, and if there is a piece of equipment, each room can be designed, or even the important precision instrument room should be strengthened with camera monitoring.
05. Laboratory water supply and drainage design
The laboratory water supply and drainage includes tap water and pure water. Because the best way of water supply and drainage in the laboratory is to use concealed installation, if the design is omitted, it will bring great inconvenience and trouble to the later laboratory management.
Generally speaking, high-quality U-PVC pipes can be used as the laboratory water supply pipes, 6 'for the main pipes and 4' for the branch pipes; high-quality PPR pipes can be used as the drainage pipes, generally φ 50 or φ 75, and φ 110 pipes can be used in special cases.
Pure water: determine the appropriate water making equipment according to the pure water quantity and grade required for full load operation of all equipment, and reserve enough space for the water treatment capacity of the selected equipment. In the SLP design, the most noisy air pump (providing gas pressure for the automatic assembly line) and the pure water treatment instrument are placed in the independent water machine room at the back of the central laboratory. The leak proof pipeline of the pure water instrument is directly connected with the drainage system of the laboratory, and the water absorption pump is set in the machine room to facilitate the treatment of a certain degree of leakage. In addition, two subsoil grooves are arranged on the axis of the laboratory instrument, and all the water supply and drainage pipes are laid underground.
06. Laboratory air conditioning system
The temperature and humidity of the laboratory should be designed according to the requirements of the experiment. The ordinary physical and chemical room can be designed by using ordinary split air conditioning or multi connected. For precision instrument room, there are certain requirements for temperature and humidity, such as ICP, ICP-MS, etc. There are also some special requirements for temperature and humidity, such as fiber inspection, paper inspection, textile fabrics, etc. In designing such a laboratory, designers need to select materials according to the standards.
The standard atmosphere for the inspection of textiles and textile raw materials shall be in accordance with iso139 and gb6529 standards, with a temperature of 20 ± 1 ℃ and a relative humidity of 65% ± 2%; the standard atmosphere for the inspection of paper, paper products and cartons shall be in accordance with iso187 and gb10739 standards, with a temperature of 23 ± 1 ℃ and a relative humidity of 50% ± 2%. In addition to the conventional constant temperature and humidity laboratory, there are other special constant temperature and humidity laboratories with special requirements, such as 5-18 ℃ low temperature, 30-80 ℃ high temperature, relative humidity less than 40% RH low humidity, relative humidity higher than 80% RH high humidity.
07. Laboratory illumination and noise control design
According to the building technical specifications of biosafety laboratory, the illumination of BSL-2 laboratory shall not be less than 300lux, and the noise shall not be more than 68db6. Before the interior decoration of the laboratory, the illuminance requirements of the laboratory were put forward to the construction party, and after the completion, the illuminance test was carried out. The illuminance of the machine room is about 285-319lux, and the illuminance of the core working area is about 375-384lux, basically in line with the BSL-2 laboratory construction standard. After taking the measures of water and electricity independence, the environmental noise in the laboratory is obviously reduced, especially in the relatively independent core working area, the decibel number is basically the same as that in the ordinary consulting room.
08. Laboratory purification and purification level
Before the construction of the laboratory, the biosafety assessment shall be carried out according to the general biosafety guidelines for microbiological and biomedical laboratories, the general biosafety requirements for laboratories (gb19489-2008) and the biosafety management regulations for pathogenic microbiological laboratories (Order No. 424 of the State Council), to determine whether the laboratory needs to be purified and the purification level.